Семинар 11Задание 1. Перепишите предложения из активного залога в пассивный1) Nobody has used this room for ages.This room hasn’t been used for ages by anybody.2) We will give you the keys tomorrow.The keys will be given you tomorrow.3) Someone is interviewing Dr Johnson at the moment.Dr Johnson is being interviewed by someone at the moment.4) By the time I arrived, someone had already opened all your letters.All you letters had been already opened by someone by the time I arrived.5) We usually talk briefly about the problems of the family at dinner time.The problems of the family are usually talked briefly about at dinner time.
Задание 2. Выберите правильный вариант

1. This theatre … (build) over 100 years ago.a. had been builtb. has been builtc. was built2. Is your car still for sale? — No. It … already (sell).a. has been soldb. had been soldc. was sold3. Sometimes mistakes … (make).a. are madeb. are being made.c. have been made4. For the past few days I (work) in Jack’s office, as my own … (decorate).a. have been working/ is being decoratedb. worked/ decoratedc. am worked/ is being decorated.5. While my friend … (talk) to me, his wallet .. (steal).a. was being talked/ was being stolenb. was talking/ was stolenc. talked/stole6. Where is your friend Bob? — I don’t know. He … (not/ seen) recently.a. hasn’t seenb. didn’t seec. hasn’t been seen7. If someone … (report) you to the police, you … (make) to pay a big fine.a. reports/ will be madeb. will report/ will makec. is reported/ will be made8. Professor … ( give) another lecture at the same time next week.a. will have been givenb. will be givingc. will give9. Look at the dust in here! It … (look) as if this room (not/clean) … for a month.a. is looked/ hasn’t cleanedb. looks/ hasn’t been cleanedc. has looked/ isn’t cleaned10. The door … (open) and a young lady … (come in). It should be admitted that the door … (open) by herself.a. opened/ came in/ was openedb. was opened/ came in/ was openedc. opened/ came in/ opened

Задание 3. Переделайте из активного залога в пассивный

1) The senior students laughed at the freshmanThe freshman was laughed at by the senior students.2) The young mothers looked after their babies with great care The babies were looked after with great care by their young mothers.3) The doctor will operate on him in a weekHe will be operated on in a week.4) The neighbor asked for a telegramA telegram was asked for by the neighbor.5) The teacher sent for the pupils’ parentsThe pupils’ parents were sent for by the teacher.6) You must take the box to the stationThe box must be taken to the station.7) You can cross the river on the raftThe river can be crossed on the raft.8) You must do this work very carefullyThis work must be done very carefully.9) I can hardly forgive this mistakeThis mistake can be hardly forgiven.10) You can find him there He can be found here.

Задание 4. Переведите на английский1) Руки нужно мыть перед едойHands must be washed before having meal.2) Комнаты нужно регулярно проветриватьRooms must be regularly aired.3) Как можно перевести это слово?How can this word be translated?4) Ей можно предложить новую работуA new job can be offered to her.5) Нужно записать его номер телефона. His telephone number should be written down.
Сослагательное наклонение

1. I'm hungry. I wish it ... time for dinner,a) is b) be c) was d) were2. If I ... her yesterday, I ... to her.a) see/speak b) will see/will speak c) saw/would speak d) had seen/would have spoken3. The teacher demanded that nobody ... for classes,a) was late b) should be late c) were late d) late4. Would it be all right if I ... your dictionary?a) take b) will take c) took d) would take5. If the weather ... fine tomorrow, we 'II go swimming,a) was b) will be c) is d) were6. I wish it ... summer now.a) is b) were c) be d) should be7. The doctor insists that I ... the medicine regularly,a) took b) should take c) was taken d) take8. He looked so happy as if he ... the lottery,a) win b) had won c) won d) should win9. If temperature ... 0°, water ...a) will be/freeze b) is/would freeze c) was/will freeze d) is/freezes10. I wish I ...him yesterday.a) telephone b) had telephoned c) would telephone d) telephoned

Задание 2. Поставьте глагол в нужную форму, переведите.а ) 1. If I knew her well, I would introduce you to her. 2. If I spoke German very well, I would go to live in Germany. 3. If she didn't miss classes, she would do well. 4. If they had much money they would spend their holiday on the Bahamas. 5. If you drove more carefully, you wouldn’t have crashed your car. 6. If the dog began to bark, you would know about the danger 7. If she were more sociable, she would have a lot of friends.
Задание 3. Поставьте глагол в нужную форму, переведите.1. If the weather were not so cold, she would feel better. 2. If Mary were here, she would know what to do. 3. If he were stronger, he would win the competition. 4. If I were a millionaire, I would buy everything I like. 5. If she were my sister, I would protect her from troubles.
Задание 4. Составьте условные предложения, исходя из данной ситуации.1. She can't carry the bag upstairs because it's too heavy. If the bags were not too heavy, she could carry them upstairs.2. The Italians speak very fast; it's difficult to understand them. If the Italians spoke not so fast, it would be easier to understand them.3. It was very dark. He bumped into a tree. If it have not been so dark, he would never have bumped into a tree. 4. His room looks untidy. He was no time to clean it. If he had time to clean his room, it wouldn’t look so untidy.5. This pupil writes too quickly, that's why he makes so many mistakes. Is this pupil wrote not that quickly, he would not make so many mistakes.6. 1 can't take you to the swimming-pool because you can't swim. If you were able to swim, I could take you to the swimming pool.7. She can't see well because she doesn’t like to wear glasses. If she wore glasses, she could see well.8. The chemist can't give you this medicine. You don't have a receipt for it.If you had a receipt for this medicine, the chemist could give it to you.
Задание 5. Составьте предложения с "wish ". Переведите.1. 1 don't know how to do it. I wish I knew how to do it. — Если бы я знал, как сделать это! — Жаль, что я не знаю, как сделать это.2. He is not good at mathematics. He wishes he were good at mathematics. — Если бы он хорошо понимал математику! — Жаль, что он плохо понимает математику.3. She doesn’t know how to answer this question. She wishes she knew how to answer this question.Вот бы она могла ответить на этот вопрос!4. My grandmother doesn't like to live in the city. I wish my grandmother liked to live in the city.Если б моей бабушке нравилось жить в городе!5. They want to buy a house but they have no money. They wish they had money to buy a house. — Вот бы у них были деньги, чтобы купить дом!6. You think it's difficult to learn foreign languages. I wish it were not so difficult to learn foreign languages.Вот бы учить иностранные языки было не так сложно!7. He must do the report soon but the he has no necessary information. He wishes he had the necessary information, because he must do the report soon. Вот бы у него была необходимая информацияведь ему скоро сдавать отчет!8. Children want to go skating but it is very cold outdoors. Children wish it were not so could outdoors, because they want to go skating.Жаль, что на улице так холодно: дети хотят покататься на коньках.9. She wants to be a top model but she isn't tall enough. She wished she were tall enough to be a top model.Жаль, что она недостаточно высокая, чтобы быть топ-моделью.10. All his friends have cars, but he hasn't.He wishes he had car like all his friends. — Вот бы у него была машина, как у всех его друзей!IT, ONE, THAT Упражнение 1. Переведите предложения на русский язык, указав, какую функцию выполняет местоимение it. 1. It took him some time to bring home the fact that the experiment was dangerous. Ему понадобилось некоторое время, чтобы сказать дома о том, что этот эксперимент опасен. (предваряющее слово)2. Nowadays most people find it difficult to keep pace with the information accumulating in their special field of interest. В настоящее время многим тяжело успевать за тем количеством информации, которое появляется в сферах, которые их интересуют. (формальное дополнение)3. It is not quite clear at the moment who will see to it that all is in balance. Пока не совсем понятно, кто будет следить за тем, что все находится в равновесии. (предваряющее слово, указательное местоимение)4. It is not very wise of you to cut your life short by ignoring your doctor's advice. Не очень умно с твоей стороны укорачивать себе жить, не следуя советам врача. (предваряющее слово)5. It was only in this century that aluminium was produced in quantity. Только в этом веке алюминий производился в таких количествах. (усилительное слово)6. It is also important that more and more service and auxiliary operations are being done by automatic devices: no longer does the cosmonaut have to depend on ground control for a lot of valuable information. Также важно, что все больше и больше операций обслуживания и вспомогательных операций делается автоматически: космонавт больше не зависит от наземного управления для получения большего количества важной информации. (предваряющее слово)7. Many people in the world believe that it is man who is degrading and polluting his environment. Множество человек по всему миру считают, что именно человек загрязняет и разрушает окружающую среду. (усилительное слово)8. It is perhaps for this reason that most of the significant experimental results have surfaced in the last five to seven years. Возможно, именно по этой причине результаты самых важных экспериментов появились в последние пять-семь лет. (усилительное слово)9. It was not until the mid-forties that this problem was recognized. Эту проблему признали только в середине сороковых годов. (усилительное слово)10. One of the most dangerous products of unjust wars is intolerance, violence and repression in the country waging the war. It suits reaction to stir up hysteria and, in the name of "patriotism", set the jingo riff-raff against those who are campaigning for peace. Одними из наиболее опасных продуктов несправедливых войн являются нетерпимость, насилие и репрессии в стране, ведущей войну. Война вызывает реакцию, чтобы разжечь истерию и ура-патриотические настроения против тех, кто борется за мир. (указательное местоимение)
Упражнение 2. Переведите предложения на русский язык. Определите часть речи.1. One believes things because one has been conditioned to believe them. Некоторым вещам веришь потому, что приходится. (местоимение)2. One's family can be a real nuisance at times. (местоимение) Семья может быть реальной неприятностью время от времени.3. "You have a situation where the softer ones see their interests defended by the 'no future people' who are ready to take any kind of risk," he said. «У вас ситуация, где более мягкие люди видят, что их интересы защищаются теми, к кого нет будущего, кто уже готов пойти на любой риск», — сказал он. (местоимение)4. The winner will be the one whom the voters don't want less than they don't want his opponent. (указательное местоимение) Победителем будет тот, кого голосующие не хотят видеть на посту меньше, чем его противника.5. In old age there is a deep and different sense about human beings and situations, one that just isn't possible when one is younger. (местоимение) В старости глубже и по-другому думаешь о людях и ситуациях, так, как никогда бы не смог подумать в юности (более глубокое представление о людях…).6. The only items remaining on the agenda were the ones listed in the Journal for 16 February. Оставшиеся вопросы на повестке дня были те, что были в списке Журнала от 16 февраля. (местоимение) 7. The new Cabinet shows significant changes, both personal and constructional, from the old one. В новом Кабинете министров чувствуются больше изменения, как личные, так и конструкционные, по сравнению со старым. (местоимение)8. The decision was not an easy one to make. The mechanics of maintaining an embargo presented obvious difficulties. Принять это решение было непросто. Механизмы поддержания эмбарго представляли очевидные трудности.9. Tokyo — Japan's most serious problem — and the one that is least discussed — is overpopulated. (местоимение) Самая серьезная проблема Японии — и в то же время наименее обсуждаемая — состоит в перенаселенности Токио.10. One can easily understand people's aspirations for world peace. Можно легко понять стремление людей к миру во всем мире.
Упражнение 3. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на различные функции слова that. 1. It struck me that the boss was behaving pretty strangely.Меня поразило, что начальник ведет себя довольно странно. (союз)2. Your assumption, that things will improve, is not well-founded. Ваше предположение о том, что положение дел улучшится, ничем не обосновано. (союз)3. The Bank of England forecasts that investment cuts next year will be severe and more general, and that the trade balance will deteriorate. Банк Англии прогнозирует, что инвестиционные сокращения в следующем году будут серьезными и более общими, а торговый баланс будет ухудшаться. (союз)4. As Prof. T. sees it, there are two related problems that the international financial community must soon address. Согласно профессору Т., есть две подобные проблемы, которые международное финансовое сообщество должно решить в ближайшее время. (относительное местоимение)5. The democratic and peace forces today have no task more pressing than that of safeguarding humanity against a global thermonuclear disaster. Сегодня демократическая и миротворческая силы не имеют задачи более важной, чем защита человечества от мировой термоядерной катастрофы. (слово-заменитель)6. "This bill is the most realistic solution to youth unemployment because it sets a definite time frame for eradicating joblessness and also contains a strong affirmative action program for minority youth, who are unemployed at a rate three times that of white youth," she said. «Этот законопроект — наиболее реалистичное решение проблемы безработицы среди молодежи, потому что он определяет временные рамки для ликвидации безработицы, а также содержит сильную программу действий по улучшению ситуации с безработицей молодежи, относящейся к расовым меньшинствам, уровень которой в три раза превышает уровень безработицы среди белой молодежи», — заявила она. (слово-заменитель)